Learn more Check out. Abstract Human language is the key evolutionary innovation that makes humans different from other species. Citing Literature. Related Information.

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Close Figure Viewer. Browse All Figures Return to Figure. Previous Figure Next Figure. Email or Customer ID. Forgot password? Old Password. New Password. Password Changed Successfully Your password has been changed. Returning user. Request Username Can't sign in? Forgot your username? The goal of the alliance is to perform basic research in support of Network- Centric Operations across the needs of both nations. Subsequently, as a result of these efforts, the U. Department of Defense has sponsored numerous research projects that support Network Science. The behavior of these network properties often define network models and can be used to analyze how certain models contrast to each other.

Many of the definitions for other terms used in network science can be found in Glossary of graph theory. The average shortest path length is calculated by finding the shortest path between all pairs of nodes, and taking the average over all paths of the length thereof the length being the number of intermediate edges contained in the path, i.

This shows us, on average, the number of steps it takes to get from one member of the network to another. For faster-than-logarithmic growth, the model does not produce small worlds. As another means of measuring network graphs, we can define the diameter of a network as the longest of all the calculated shortest paths in a network. It is the shortest distance between the two most distant nodes in the network. In other words, once the shortest path length from every node to all other nodes is calculated, the diameter is the longest of all the calculated path lengths.

The diameter is representative of the linear size of a network. The clustering coefficient is a measure of an "all-my-friends-know-each-other" property. This is sometimes described as the friends of my friends are my friends. More precisely, the clustering coefficient of a node is the ratio of existing links connecting a node's neighbors to each other to the maximum possible number of such links.

The clustering coefficient for the entire network is the average of the clustering coefficients of all the nodes. A high clustering coefficient for a network is another indication of a small world. The maximum possible number of connections between neighbors is, then,. From a probabalistic standpoint, the expected local clustering coefficient is the likelihood of a link existing between two arbitrary neighbors of the same node. The way in which a network is connected plays a large part into how networks are analyzed and interpreted. Networks are classified in four different categories:.

Centrality indices produce rankings which seek to identify the most important nodes in a network model.

Different centrality indices encode different contexts for the word "importance. The eigenvalue centrality , in contrast, considers a node highly important if many other highly important nodes link to it. Hundreds of such measures have been proposed in the literature. Centrality indices are only accurate for identifying the most central nodes.

The measures are seldom, if ever, meaningful for the remainder of network nodes. Since any transfer from one community to the other must go over this link, the two junior members will have high betweenness centrality. But, since they are junior, presumably they have few connections to the "important" nodes in their community, meaning their eigenvalue centrality would be quite low.

The concept of centrality in the context of static networks was extended, based on empirical and theoretical research, to dynamic centrality [7] in the context of time-dependent and temporal networks. Limitations to centrality measures have led to the development of more general measures. Two examples are the accessibility , which uses the diversity of random walks to measure how accessible the rest of the network is from a given start node, [11] and the expected force , derived from the expected value of the force of infection generated by a node.

Network models serve as a foundation to understanding interactions within empirical complex networks. Various random graph generation models produce network structures that may be used in comparison to real-world complex networks. It can be used in the probabilistic method to prove the existence of graphs satisfying various properties, or to provide a rigorous definition of what it means for a property to hold for almost all graphs. In this model the clustering coefficient is 0 a.

The largest connected component has high complexity. The configuration model takes a degree sequence [12] [13] or degree distribution [14] which subsequently is used to generate a degree sequence as the input, and produces randomly connected graphs in all respects other than the degree sequence.

This means that for a given choice of the degree sequence, the graph is chosen uniformly at random from the set of all graphs that comply with this degree sequence. This process is called percolation on random networks. The Watts and Strogatz model is a random graph generation model that produces graphs with small-world properties.

An initial lattice structure is used to generate a Watts—Strogatz model. Another parameter is specified as the rewiring probability. As the Watts—Strogatz model begins as non-random lattice structure, it has a very high clustering coefficient along with high average path length. Each rewire is likely to create a shortcut between highly connected clusters.

As the rewiring probability increases, the clustering coefficient decreases slower than the average path length. In effect, this allows the average path length of the network to decrease significantly with only slightly decreases in clustering coefficient. Higher values of p force more rewired edges, which in effect makes the Watts—Strogatz model a random network. In this model, an edge is most likely to attach to nodes with higher degrees. The network begins with an initial network of m 0 nodes.

In the BA model, new nodes are added to the network one at a time. Formally, the probability p i that the new node is connected to node i is [19].

## Evolution of Networks: From Biological Nets to the Internet and WWW

Heavily linked nodes "hubs" tend to quickly accumulate even more links, while nodes with only a few links are unlikely to be chosen as the destination for a new link. The new nodes have a "preference" to attach themselves to the already heavily linked nodes.

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The degree distribution resulting from the BA model is scale free, in particular, it is a power law of the form:. Hubs exhibit high betweenness centrality which allows short paths to exist between nodes. As a result, the BA model tends to have very short average path lengths. The clustering coefficient of this model also tends to 0. It implies that the higher the links degree a node has, the higher its chance of gaining more links since they can be reached in a larger number of ways through mediators which essentially embodies the intuitive idea of rich get richer mechanism or the preferential attachment rule of the Barabasi—Albert model.

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Another model where the key ingredient is the nature of the vertex has been introduced by Caldarelli et al. The degree of a vertex i is given by [24]. Social network analysis examines the structure of relationships between social entities.

Since the s, the empirical study of networks has played a central role in social science, and many of the mathematical and statistical tools used for studying networks have been first developed in sociology. Similarly, it has been used to examine the spread of both diseases and health-related behaviors. It has also been applied to the study of markets , where it has been used to examine the role of trust in exchange relationships and of social mechanisms in setting prices.

Similarly, it has been used to study recruitment into political movements and social organizations. It has also been used to conceptualize scientific disagreements as well as academic prestige. More recently, network analysis and its close cousin traffic analysis has gained a significant use in military intelligence, for uncovering insurgent networks of both hierarchical and leaderless nature.

Dynamic network analysis examines the shifting structure of relationships among different classes of entities in complex socio-technical systems effects, and reflects social stability and changes such as the emergence of new groups, topics, and leaders. These entities can be highly varied.

Dynamic network techniques are particularly useful for assessing trends and changes in networks over time, identification of emergent leaders, and examining the co-evolution of people and ideas. With the recent explosion of publicly available high throughput biological data, the analysis of molecular networks has gained significant interest.

The type of analysis in this content are closely related to social network analysis, but often focusing on local patterns in the network. For example, network motifs are small subgraphs that are over-represented in the network.

## Evolution of Networks: From Biological Nets to the Internet and WWW

Activity motifs are similar over-represented patterns in the attributes of nodes and edges in the network that are over represented given the network structure. The analysis of biological networks has led to the development of network medicine , which looks at the effect of diseases in the interactome. Link analysis is a subset of network analysis, exploring associations between objects. An example may be examining the addresses of suspects and victims, the telephone numbers they have dialed and financial transactions that they have partaken in during a given timeframe, and the familial relationships between these subjects as a part of police investigation.

### Authors and Affiliations

Link analysis here provides the crucial relationships and associations between very many objects of different types that are not apparent from isolated pieces of information. Computer-assisted or fully automatic computer-based link analysis is increasingly employed by banks and insurance agencies in fraud detection, by telecommunication operators in telecommunication network analysis, by medical sector in epidemiology and pharmacology , in law enforcement investigations , by search engines for relevance rating and conversely by the spammers for spamdexing and by business owners for search engine optimization , and everywhere else where relationships between many objects have to be analyzed.

The structural robustness of networks [33] is studied using percolation theory. When a critical fraction of nodes is removed the network becomes fragmented into small clusters. Stochastic models for the Web graph. Adamic, L.

## AMS :: Feature Column from the AMS

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