Chess compositions can be classified into groups such as direct mates two-movers, three-movers, and more-movers , selfmates, helpmates, etc.
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A selfmate is a composition in which White is to play and force Black to deliver mate. A helpmate is a composition in which Black and White cooperate to reach a mate for White. Fadil Abdurahmanovic is a Bosnian Grandmaster of chess composition and an International Judge of Composition.
His best work is in the form of helpmates and fairy problems. Yochanan Afek is a chess composer of endgame studies and problems. Her has published about studies and he has won 11 first place awards for his compositions. Iuri Akobia of Soviet Georgia has composed over studies. He has written several chess books on endgame composition.
Baird , is the most famous female chess composer. In she wrote Chess Problems, which took her 14 years to complete. In , she wrote The Twentieth Century Retractor take a move back to make a stronger move to mate or win the game , which was full of Shakespeare quotes.
He has won 24 first place awards for his chess compositions.
Vladimir Bron was a top Soviet chess composer and master. He composed over studies during his lifetime. In he wrote Selected Studies and Problems. He won 31 first prizes for his chess compositions in composing tournaments. He was awarded the title of Grandmaster for chess composition. Ignazio Calvi was an Italian chess player and composer. He was perhaps the first person to use under-promotion not promoting to a queen in endgame studies. Luigi Centurini was an Italian chess player and composer who specialized in bishop vs.
Vitaly Chekover was a Russian master and composer of around studies. He was a specialist on knight endings. Together with GM Yuri Averbakh, he published a four-volume encyclopedia on endgames in Andre Cheron was the chess champion of France in , , and He wrote the four-volume Lehr- und Handbuch der Schachendspiele from to He is one of the most famous endgame composers. In he wrote American Chess Nuts, a collection of over 2, positions.
He personally composed over chess problems. When he died, he had the third largest chess book collection in the world. His library of over 2, chess books was presented to Princeton University. Nowadays, a library of 2, chess books is common. I personally have a library of over 5, chess books — Wall. He was considered the father of Fairy Chess and invented many fairy pieces and new chess conditions for chess problems and compositions. He composed 5, fairy chess problems, directmates, 97 selfmates, and endings.
He was awarded prizes for of his problems. He invented the Nightrider and the Grasshopper. The Nightrider moves like a knight, but then can continue to moves as a knight as long as the spaces visited by all but the last jump remain empty. The Nightrider is denoted as an inverted knight.
The Grasshopper is denoted as an inverted queen. It moves as a chess queen, but must jump exactly one piece when it moves, and it stops, directly at the square after the piece it jumped. Pieces jumped by a grasshopper are not captured. He graduated from Harvard at the age of He worked as a scholar at the Library of Congress. From to he was the Problem Editor of Chess Review.
He published over a thousand chess problems.
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He was an International Judge for Chess Composition. Nikolai Grigoriev was a Russian chess master and problem composer. He composed over studies and was an authority on pawn endings and rook and pawn endings. David Gurgenidze from Soviet Georgia, has published over studies and has won 32 first prizes. He conducted the problem department in the American Chess Bulletin. He composed chess problems for over 70 years, composing over 2, problems. Bernhard Horwitz was a German composer of around studies. Along with Josef Kling, he authored the first anthology of endgames in Genrikh Kasparian was one of the first Grandmasters of Chess Compositions.
He is considered to have been one of the greatest composers of chess endgame studies ever.
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In he wrote Domination in Endgame Studies. He composed about studies and won 57 first places. Cyril S. Kipping of England was one of the most prolific composer of chess problems in the world. He composed over 7, chess problems in his lifetime. Karl Leonid Kubbel was a Russian endgame composer and problemist. He composed over 1, endgame studies and problems. He is considered one of the greatest of all endgame composers.
Zweig could no longer maintain his detachment: he would watch the unfolding events from afar. His writing reveals his sympathy for fellow human beings, but is stunted by the distance that he invariably sets between himself and his subjects, thematically and stylistically. His most successful works are his plays, in which actors serve as intermediaries between the writer and his audience, and his novellas, which tend to be framed in a way that puts both reader and author at a remove: a nameless, characterless narrator encounters an Ancient Mariner figure, or reflects on a fascinating person he once met.
In The Invisible Collection , the narrator meets an art dealer who relates a strange encounter. The setting is Germany between the wars, and inflation is at its height. The dealer, struggling to find goods to sell, has paid a visit to a longtime customer in a provincial town.
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When he arrives, he discovers that the old man is now blind, and his wife and daughter have sold off his collection piece by piece to support the household. As he spoke, his fingers caressed the despoiled portfolios. It was horrible and touching. Not for years, not since , had I witnessed an expression of such unmitigated happiness on the face of a German. An art dealer, I had come in search of bargains.
Instead, as events turned out, I had been a sort of angel of good luck, lying like a trooper in order to assist in a fraud which kept an old man happy.
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Ashamed of lying, I was glad that I had lied. Zweig understood and admired the impulse to collect; his own passion was for manuscripts, which he accumulated throughout his life and whose dispersal he lamented during his years in exile. It is not the act of collecting itself that is admirable in the old man, however, but his use of it to transcend his situation: at a time when most people are preoccupied with survival, he devotes his mind to art.
Although he does this in ignorance of outside events, the state of concentration he achieves is that of the true artist. The theatre was not heated, thus the audience kept their overcoats on and huddled together, and how melancholy and grey this house was that used to glitter with uniforms and costly gowns! The Philharmonic players were like grey shadows in their shabby dress suits, undernourished and exhausted by many privations, and the audience, too, seemed to be ghosts in a theatre which had become ghostly.
Then, however, the conductor lifted his baton, the curtain parted and it was as glorious as ever. Every singer, every musician did his best, his utmost, for each had in mind that perhaps it might be his last time in this beloved house. And we strained and listened, receptive as never before, because perhaps it was really the last time. The disengagement that marks his fiction manifests itself in an obsession with technical as well as emotional spareness.
It is an unrelenting throwing overboard of ballast, an ever tightening and clarifying of the inner structure. This process of condensation and dramatisation repeats itself once, twice and three times in the proof sheets; in the end it becomes a kind of joyful hunt for another sentence or even merely a word the absence of which would not lessen the precision and yet at the same time accelerate the tempo.
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Zweig has no room for ambiguity, tangents, anything that detracts from his narrative line. Soon enough the master turns up to investigate. He can barely conceal his scorn, but is persuaded to play for a steep fee. Just as the challengers are about to make a crucial mistake, a stranger arrives; he talks them through to a draw, then disappears. Shortly before the Anschluss, Dr B is arrested by the Gestapo.
Singled out for special handling, he is sent not to a concentration camp but to a hotel. There he is confined to a room devoid of art, books, writing implements, or any other stimulus. Day after day he is interrogated, and afterwards, in his lonely room, he can do nothing but brood over the details of the interrogation, tortured by the thought that he may have betrayed others by giving away too much or hurt himself by giving away too little.
But one would have seen faces, would have had space, a tree, a star, something, anything, to stare at, while here everything stood before one unchangeably the same, always the same, maddeningly the same. They wanted me to gag and gag on my thoughts until they choked me and I had no choice but to spit them out at last.
nats-bezpeka.com.ua/libraries/powell/loni-chat-terra.php After four months of this, Dr B manages to steal a book from the coat pocket of one of the interrogators.